The term powertrain describes the main components in a motor vehicle that generate power and then deliver it to any surfaces like the road, air, or water. There are various elements of powertrain which are mentioned below, but recently some more parts are also considered to be hybrid powertrain components, and they are the battery, the control algorithm, and the electric motor. Basically, "Powertrain" usually refers to the engine and the transmission only, thereby including some other components only if these components are important parts of the transmission.
The driveline of a motor vehicle consists of the parts of a powertrain excluding the transmission and engine. It is that portion of a vehicle that changes after the transmission depending on the type of the vehicle whether the vehicle is rear-wheel, front-wheel, four-wheel, six-wheel or eight-wheel drive. Hence we can say those powertrain components that are used to transform stored energy like chemical, nuclear, solar, potential, kinetic, etc into kinetic energy which helps in the utilization of multiple power sources.
The various components of powertrain:
The different powertrain components are as follows:
• Internal combustion engine
• Power split device
• Reduction gears and silent chains
• Differential, wheels, and axles
What’s not included as the powertrain components
Although it may seem that there are various powertrain components, there are several things that a powertrain does not contain. They are:
• No step gear box - Neither manual nor automatic.
• No torque or clutch converter - Powertrain wheels are firmly connected to generators/motors and the ICE by the gears.
• No starter motor - The ICE is started via the gears by the generators/motor in the power split device.
• No alternator – alternator is not required as the electric power is generated by the generators/motor as and when needed.